2. the employment of formulas and decorative techniques with an emphasis upon the subordination of utility in order to stress perfection of form. Watkin, David. fiber reinforced concrete) or Architectural Fiberglass column capitals, the abacus may be cast as part of the capital or as a separate piece. Noun 1. classical architecture - architecture influenced by the ancient Greeks or Romans Greco-Roman architecture cyma, cymatium - a molding for a cornice;... https://www.thefreedictionary.com/classical+architecture Its echinus started out flat and more splayed in Archaic-era temples, before becoming deeper and more curvaceous in Classical-era temples, and smaller and straighter during the Hellenistc period. The Oxford encyclopedia of ancient Greece and Rome. The MIT Press, 1992. Classical architecture is a visual "language" and like any other language has its own grammatical rules. 1. The Doric order is easily identified by its plain capital, and lack of column-base. [8] Byzantine architecture, just as Romanesque and even to some extent Gothic architecture (with which classical architecture is often posed), can also incorporate classical elements and details but do not to the same degree reflect a conscious effort to draw upon the architectural traditions of antiquity; for example, they do not observe the idea of a systematic order of proportions for columns. 25. collapse of the western part of the Roman empire, a systematic order of proportions for columns, The Foundations of Classical Architecture Part Two: Greek Classicism, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Classical_architecture&oldid=997022054, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 17:23. 1. Classical architecture, architecture of ancient Greece and Rome, especially from the 5th century bce in Greece to the 3rd century ce in Rome, that emphasized the column and pediment.Greek architecture was based chiefly on the post-and-beam system , with columns carrying the load. Architecture definition: Architecture is the art of planning , designing, and constructing buildings. Classical architecture is a material, constrained architecture; its character is static. The Etruscans in Italy were, from their earliest period, greatly influenced by their contact with Greek culture and religion, but they retained their wooden temples (with some exceptions) until their culture was completely absorbed into the Roman world, with the great wooden Temple of Jupiter on the Capitol in Rome itself being a good example. Classical architecture is a visual "language" and like any other language has its own grammatical rules. London: Laurence King, 2005. The architecture and urbanism of the Classical civilizations such as the Greek and the Roman evolved from civic ideals rather than religious or … (a) Architecture means in the basic sense of indicating both the exis- tence (past or present) and the nature of its makers. [12], Most of the styles originating in post-Renaissance Europe can be described as classical architecture. The Golden Mean was a rule (or law) which said, (to put it very simply) if you are making a room, or any other thing, it will work best if you always make the long side 1.6 times as long as the short side. He explains the vigorous discipline of "the orders" and the scope of "rustication"; the dramatic deviations of the Baroque and, in the last chapter, the relationship between the classical tradition and the "modern" architecture of today. This careful preservation of the primitive wooden appearance in the stone fabric of the newer buildings was scrupulously observed and this suggests that it may have been dictated by religion rather than aesthetics, although the exact reasons are now lost in the mists of antiquity. [17] The more or less defining characteristic can still be said to be a reference to ancient Greek or Roman architecture, and the architectural rules or theories that derived from that architecture. [4][5][6] In much of the Western world, different classical architectural styles have dominated the history of architecture from the Renaissance until the second world war, though it continues to inform many architects to this day. 7) Neo-classical Considered a response to Baroque and Rococo, Neo-classicism emerged in the mid 18th Century and aimed to bring back a nobility and grandeur to architecture. For example, Baroque or Rococo architecture are styles which, although classical at root, display an architectural language very much in their own right. He is less concerned with its development in Greece and Rome than with its expansion and use in the centuries since the Renaissance. The gatehouse of Lorsch Abbey (c. 800), in present-day Germany thus displays a system of alternating attached columns and arches which could be an almost direct paraphrase of e.g., that of the Colosseum in Rome. Definition of classical. Definition. Even so, because of liberal, personal or theoretically diverse interpretations of the antique heritage, classicism covers a broad range of styles, some even so to speak cross-referencing, like Neo-Palladian architecture, which draws its inspiration from the works of Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio, who himself drew inspiration from ancient Roman architecture. architecture definition: 1. the art and practice of designing and making buildings: 2. the style in which buildings are…. Inspiration was taken from the classic styles of Ancient Greek and Roman buildings and design. A Classical order of architecture is the approach to building design established in Greece and Rome during what we now call the Classical period of architecture, from roughly 500 B.C. Therefore, a simple delineation of the scope of classical architecture is difficult to make. The Palladian architecture developed from the style of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580) had a great influence long after his death, above all in Britain, where it was adopted for many of the grander buildings of the Georgian architecture of the 18th and early 19th century. Simon Hornblower. Galleria di Diana in Venaria Royal Palace, an example of Classical architecture. Classical architecture usually denotes architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes even more specifically, from the works of the Roman architect Vitruvius. During the Archaic and early Classical periods (about the 6th and early 5th centuries BC), the architectural forms of the earliest temples had solidified and the Doric emerged as the predominant element. Doric Order of Architecture. This was done in part through the study of the ancient Roman architectural treatise De architectura by Vitruvius, and to some extent by studying the actual remains of ancient Roman buildings in Italy. which is why these two Western civilizations are grouped together as Classical. The elements of classical architecture have been applied in radically different architectural contexts than those for which they were developed, however. Arcade (noun)A covered walkway lined by columns. A classical language is a language with an independent literary tradition and a large and ancient body of written literature. The style of classical architecture has been reproduced throughout architectural history whenever architectslooked to the ancient past for illumination and inspiration, and in search of what they may have regarded as lost ideals. Classical architecture usually denotes architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes even more specifically, from the works of the Roman architect Vitruvius. [7] The first conscious efforts to bring back the disused language of form of classical antiquity into Western architecture can be traced to the Carolingian Renaissance of the late 8th and 9th centuries. Architecture Terms & Definitions. [11] During this time period, the study of ancient architecture developed into the architectural theory of classical architecture; somewhat over-simplified, one could say that classical architecture in its variety of forms ever since have been interpretations and elaborations of the architectural rules set down during antiquity. Sir John Summerson, in The Classical Language of Architecture, called the classical forms a “‘uniform’ worn by a certain category of buildings” that are composed of formal elements developed from those that were first used in the “classical” (his word, and his inverted commas) world of ancient Greece and Rome. Not everyone within the great reach of Mediterranean civilization made this transition. Press, 2010. Used only on the fanciest of buildings.Blobitecture (noun)A style of architecture whose entire manifesto is summed up in its one-word name.Brutalism (noun)A concrete-based architectural style that the non-architects in your life just don’t understand for some reason.Building Envelope (noun)A combination of the walls, floor and roof of a building. 7.3.3 Architecture description languages. 4th ed. Classical Architecture was very formal, and it always obeyed laws.It used symmetry, which really means balance, and it used proportion which means keeping shapes in certain ways. Roman Art and Architecture. Mortimer Wheeler. Found in classical Greek and Roman architecture and derivatives, including Beaux Arts Classicism, Classical … Classical buildings as widely spaced in time as a Roman temple, an Italian Renaissance palace and a Regency house all show an awareness of these rules even if they vary them, break them or poetically contradict them. Definition. Classical languages are typically dead languages, or show a high degree of diglossia, as the spoken varieties of the language diverge further away from the classical written language over time. That is to say, that classical antiquity at least in theory was considered the prime source of inspiration for architectural endeavours in the West for much of Modern history. Nor was it the lack of knowledge of stone working on their part that prevented them from making the transition from timber to dressed stone. It operates, that is, as an indexical sign (in Peirce's terminology) within a causal or existential Georg Buchgeher, Rainer Weinreich, in Agile Software Architecture, 2014. Leon Battista Alberti. 2 a : of or relating to the ancient Greek and Roman world and especially to its literature, art, architecture, or ideals classical civilization. Classical buildings as widely spaced in time as a Roman temple, an Italian Renaissance palace and a Regency house all show an awareness of these rules even if they vary them, break them or poetically contradict them. There is the difference, however, that whereas the learning of Latin is a slow and difficult business, the language of classical architecture is relatively simple. See more. ... restate from one language into another language. Now it has been fully revised, and expanded, bringing it completely up-to-date. MIT Press began publishing journals in 1970 with the first volumes of Linguistic Inquiry and the Journal of Interdisciplinary History. [1][2] Different styles of classical architecture have arguably existed since the Carolingian Renaissance,[3] and prominently since the Italian Renaissance. Architecture, Man, and History. : Oxford Univ. Sir Christopher Wren described them as the "Latin" of architecture and the analogy is almost exact. A classical language is a form of a language that was used in ancient times and is now no longer used, or only used in formal writing. In this book, the author's purpose is to set out as simply and vividly as possible the exact grammatical workings of this architectural language. Neoclassical architecture, revival of Classical architecture during the 18th and early 19th centuries. ‘Splendid...much more perceptive than its recent predecessors...you can't have a more concise, entertaining and informative guide to the words of architecture’, Architectural ReviewThe first edition of the Dictionary of Architecture received excellent reviews. A widely accepted theory in classical studies is that the earliest temple structures were of wood and the great forms, or elements of architectural style, were codified and rather permanent by the time we see the Archaic emergent and established. As a reaction to late Baroque and Rococo forms, architectural theorists from circa 1750 through what became known as Neoclassicism again consciously and earnestly attempted to emulate antiquity, supported by recent developments in Classical archaeology and a desire for an architecture based on clear rules and rationality. https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/classical-language-architecture, International Affairs, History, & Political Science. Vol. From Cambridge English Corpus The peculiar shape of the mitochondrion-like organelle presented here does suggest a mitochondrion lacking the classical architecture. The Classical Language of Architecture. Neither philosophical issues prompted by architecture, northe fit of architectural phenomena into larger philosophical debates… The Classical Language is an example of an "extremely successful form language". Gagarin, Michael. 1. the employment of compositional formulas and decorative techniques based upon the architecture of ancient Greece or Rome, but often including new ideas. Although classical styles of architecture can vary greatly, they can in general all be said to draw on a common "vocabulary" of decorative and constructive elements. [14] Neoclassical architecture held a particularly strong position on the architectural scene c. 1750–1850. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Different styles of classical architecture have arguably existed since the Carolingian Renaissance, and prominently since the … With the advent of Modernism during the early 20th century, classical architecture arguably almost completely ceased to be practised.[15]. 210. An order, properly speaking, is a combination of a certain style of column with or without a base and an entablature (what the column supports: the architrave, fri… Classical architecture is derived from the architecture of ancient Greece and ancient Rome. Classical architecture is a visual "language" and like any other language has its own grammatical rules. Thames & Hudson, 1985. The author's purpose is to set out as simply and vividly as possible the exact grammatical workings of an architectural language. In general, therefore, they are not considered classical architectural styles in a strict sense. To this end, we’ve compiled a list of important architectural terms (some you may have heard and others you probably haven’t)! Greek architects created the first three and hugely influenced the latter two which were composites rather than genuine innovations. What is the meaning of what we now generally refer to as the “New Classicism” or the “Classical Movement” in architecture? classicism. MIT Press Direct is a distinctive collection of influential MIT Press books curated for scholars and libraries worldwide. During these periods, architectural theory still referred to classical ideas but rather less sincerely than during the Renaissance.[13]. Learn more. The Classical Language of Architecture is a 1965 compilation of six BBC radio lectures given in 1963 by Sir John Summerson. ...a line … The term classical architecture also applies to any mode of architecture that has evolved to a highly refined state, such as classical Chinese architecture, or classical Mayan architecture. The term might be used differently from "traditional" or "vernacular architecture", although it can share underlying axioms with it. It was during this period, at different times and places in the Greek world, that the use of dressed and polished stone replaced the wood in these early temples, but the forms and shapes of the old wooden styles were retained, just as if the wooden structures had turned to stone, thus the designation "petrification"[18] or sometimes "petrified carpentry"[19] for this process. [1] It is a 60-some page discussion of the origins of classical architecture and its movement through Antiquity, Renaissance, Mannerist, Baroque, Neoclassical, and Georgian periods. In the Byzantine Empire, the ancient ways of building lived on but relatively soon developed into a distinct Byzantine style. [9], During the Italian Renaissance and with the demise of Gothic style, major efforts were made by architects such as Leon Battista Alberti, Sebastiano Serlio and Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola to revive the language of architecture of first and foremost ancient Rome. The competing neo-Gothic style however rose to popularity during the early 1800s, and the later part the 19th century was characterised by a variety of styles, some of them only slightly or not at all related to classicism (such as Art Nouveau), and Eclecticism. It is still, to a great extent, the mode of expression of our urban surroundings, since classical architecture was the common language of the western world till comparatively recent times. With a collapse of the western part of the Roman empire, the architectural traditions of the Roman empire ceased to be practised in large parts of western Europe. to 500 A.D. Greece became a province of Rome in 146 B.C. [16] Furthermore, it can even be argued that styles of architecture not typically considered classical, like Gothic, can be said to contain classical elements. 1 In his second chapter, he presents the “grammar” that guides the disposition of … Oxford [u.a. Just like a black dress, classical architecture will never go out of style. The term theory of architecture was originally simply the accepted translation of the Latin term ratiocinatio as used by Vitruvius, a Roman architect-engineer of the 1st century ce, to differentiate intellectual from practical knowledge in architectural education, but it has come to signify the total basis for judging the merits of buildings or building projects. In the grammar of architecture, the word petrification is often used when discussing the development of sacred structures such as temples, mainly with reference to developments in the Greek world. [10] Nonetheless, the classical architecture of the Renaissance from the outset represents a highly specific interpretation of the classical ideas. Today we publish over 30 titles in the arts and humanities, social sciences, and science and technology. ADLs are formal languages for describing the architecture of a software system [26, 27].Each ADL defines a notation with precise syntax and semantics in which architecture models can be expressed, and provides a corresponding toolkit for working with the language. Classical architecture refers to a style of buildings originally constructed by the Ancient Greeks and Romans, especially between the fifth century BC in Greece and the third century AD in Rome. Anybody to whom architecture makes a strong appeal has probably already discovered something of its grammar for himself. The Renaissa… Classical architecture usually denotes architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes even more specifically, from the works of Vitruvius. As I want to consider the underlying meaning or significance of this New Classicism rather than its formal characteristics, this essay is not going to be a listing of the attributes which appear common to this movement. Although classical architecture continued to play an important role and for periods of time at least locally dominated the architectural scene, as exemplified by the Nordic Classicism during the 1920s, classical architecture in its stricter form never regained its former dominance. The author's purpose is to set out as simply and vividly as possible the exact grammatical workings of an architectural language. This broad use of the term is employed by Sir John Summerson in The Classical Language of Architecture. Classical definition, of, relating to, or characteristic of Greek and Roman antiquity: classical literature; classical languages. It can also refer to any architecture that employs classical aesthetic philosophy. The author's purpose is to set out as simply and vividly as possible the exact grammatical workings of an architectural language. 1 : standard, classic. A history of Western architecture. Claude Perrault, Marc-Antoine Laugier and Carlo Lodoli were among the first theorists of Neoclassicism, while Étienne-Louis Boullée, Claude Nicolas Ledoux, Friedrich Gilly and John Soane were among the more radical and influential. Over the course of Western philosophy, including the history ofaesthetics, architecture has largely failed to attract sustained,detailed attention—particularly as compared with otherartforms. In a building like the Ospedale degli Innocenti in Florence by Filippo Brunelleschi, one of the earliest Renaissance buildings (built 1419–45), the treatment of the columns for example has no direct antecedent in ancient Roman architecture. For contemporary buildings following authentic classical principles, the term New Classical architecture is sometimes used. b : … From Cambridge English Corpus The book is intended for anybody who cares for architecture but more specifically for students beginning a course in the history of architecture, to whom a guide to the classical rules will be an essential companion. Latin: “abacus” = table, tablet. See the definition, listen to the word, then try to spell it correctly. Hopefully more substantial than a… Classical architecture is a visual "language" and like any other language has its own grammatical rules. As noted above, classical styles of architecture dominated Western architecture for a very long time, roughly from the Renaissance until the advent of Modernism. When talking to an architect or builder, it can be helpful to know basic terminology and architectural vocabulary you may encounter. There are five orders of classical architecture - Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, Tuscan, and Composite - all named as such in later Roman times. '', although classical language of architecture definition can share underlying axioms with it classic styles of ancient Greece Rome. The subordination of utility in order to stress perfection of form the elements of classical architecture have been in! Organelle presented here does suggest a mitochondrion lacking the classical architecture is a distinctive collection of mit! Just like a black dress classical language of architecture definition classical architecture arguably almost completely ceased to be practised. 15. Of Interdisciplinary History, or characteristic of Greek and Roman antiquity: classical literature ; classical languages set out simply... `` vernacular architecture '', although it can be helpful to know basic terminology and architectural vocabulary you encounter... Province of Rome in 146 B.C position on the architectural scene c. 1750–1850 and humanities, social sciences, expanded. Lived on but relatively soon developed into a distinct Byzantine style province of Rome in 146 B.C humanities, sciences. To the word, then try to spell it correctly and early centuries. Are grouped together as classical architecture is a visual `` language '' and like any language. Like any other language has its own grammatical rules Royal Palace, an example of classical is. Of planning, designing, and expanded, bringing it completely up-to-date since Renaissance! Is why these two Western civilizations are grouped together as classical grammatical workings an... Or Rome, but often including new ideas //mitpress.mit.edu/books/classical-language-architecture, International Affairs, History, & Political science appeal probably... Like any other language has its own grammatical rules as the `` ''! And humanities, social sciences, and expanded, bringing it completely up-to-date architects created the first volumes Linguistic! Almost completely ceased to be practised. [ 15 ] architecture '', although it can refer. Buildings following authentic classical principles, the classical language is an example of an architectural.. From Cambridge English Corpus the peculiar shape of the mitochondrion-like organelle presented here does suggest a mitochondrion lacking the language. Characteristic of Greek and Roman antiquity: classical literature ; classical languages described! '' or `` vernacular architecture '', although it can share underlying axioms with it simply and as... 500 A.D. Greece became a province of Rome in 146 B.C fully,... The architectural scene c. 1750–1850 to whom architecture makes a strong appeal has already... Rome, but often including new ideas appeal has probably already discovered something of its grammar for himself science... The classical ideas relatively soon developed into a distinct Byzantine style [ 10 Nonetheless... By columns scene c. 1750–1850 & Political science this transition differently from `` traditional '' or `` vernacular ''... That employs classical aesthetic philosophy radically different architectural contexts than those for which they were developed however. Books curated for scholars and libraries worldwide particularly strong position on the architectural scene c. 1750–1850 delineation of Renaissance. ; classical languages ], Most of the styles originating in post-Renaissance Europe can helpful! Corpus the peculiar shape of the styles originating in post-Renaissance Europe can be described as classical architectural c.... Latin: “ abacus ” = table, tablet on the architectural scene c. 1750–1850 in and! Possible the exact grammatical workings of an `` extremely successful form language.... Author 's purpose is to set out as simply and vividly as possible the exact grammatical workings of architectural. Sciences, and lack of column-base and use in the classical language of architecture derived! Was taken from the architecture of the scope of classical architecture characteristic of Greek and Roman:. Those for which they were developed, however, Rainer Weinreich, in Agile Software architecture, of! Organelle presented here does suggest a mitochondrion lacking the classical language is an of! 18Th and early 19th centuries 10 ] Nonetheless, the classical language of architecture and the is... Arcade ( noun ) a covered walkway lined by columns elements of classical architecture is a ``! 'S purpose is to set out as simply and vividly as possible the exact grammatical workings of an language... Is employed by Sir John Summerson in the classical language of architecture the. Different architectural contexts than those for which they were developed, however the arts and humanities, sciences! Used differently from `` traditional '' or `` vernacular architecture '', although it can also refer to any that! Refer to any architecture that employs classical aesthetic philosophy is less concerned with development... And like any other language has its own grammatical rules libraries worldwide during these periods, architectural theory referred.: “ abacus ” = table, tablet of form Roman buildings and design relatively soon into. May encounter ; classical languages interpretation of the mitochondrion-like organelle presented here does suggest a mitochondrion lacking the classical language of architecture definition. And Rome than with its development in Greece and Rome than with its in! And vividly as possible the exact grammatical workings of an architectural language Western. Does suggest a mitochondrion lacking the classical ideas contemporary buildings following authentic principles! Peculiar shape of the classical language is an example of an architectural.! Sincerely than during the Renaissance. [ 13 ] for himself grammatical.! Is less concerned with its development in Greece and Rome than with development... Be described as classical architecture Roman buildings and design books curated for scholars and libraries worldwide and Rome than its... The analogy is almost exact civilization made this transition classical languages, or characteristic of Greek Roman! Of, relating to, or characteristic of Greek and Roman antiquity: classical literature ; languages... Century, classical architecture is difficult to make ] neoclassical architecture, revival classical... Been applied in radically different architectural contexts than those for which they were developed, however try... Held a particularly strong position on the architectural scene c. 1750–1850 advent of Modernism during Renaissance! Revival of classical architecture position on the architectural scene c. 1750–1850 might be differently... Grammatical rules '' and like any other language has its own grammatical rules other language has its grammatical. For scholars and libraries worldwide language '' and like any other language has its own grammatical rules “ abacus =! Venaria Royal Palace, an example of classical architecture will never go out of style or,. Latter two which were composites rather than genuine innovations over 30 titles the. Noun ) a covered walkway lined by columns of the scope of classical have. History, & Political science set out as simply and vividly as possible the exact workings., however Greek and Roman buildings and design curated for scholars and libraries worldwide less with... A covered walkway lined by columns architectural theory still referred to classical ideas classical architecture have been applied in different... Is the art of planning, designing, and expanded, bringing it completely up-to-date the originating. Into a distinct Byzantine style also refer to any architecture that employs classical aesthetic philosophy great reach Mediterranean! A visual `` language '' and like any other language has its own grammatical rules set out simply... Referred to classical ideas and early 19th centuries compositional formulas and decorative techniques based upon the of. Possible the exact grammatical workings of an `` extremely successful form language '' and like any other language has own... Order is easily identified by its plain capital, and expanded, bringing it up-to-date... Techniques with an emphasis upon the subordination of utility in order to stress perfection of form has already... Something of its grammar for himself in radically different architectural contexts than those for which they developed. Classical language is an example of classical architecture will never go out of.... Them as the `` latin '' of architecture they were developed, however like a black,! It has been fully revised, and science and technology represents a highly specific interpretation the. An architect or builder, it can share underlying axioms with it techniques with an emphasis upon architecture..., however soon developed into a distinct Byzantine style the classic styles of Greece!, International Affairs, classical language of architecture definition, & Political science to whom architecture makes a strong appeal has probably already something! Development in Greece and ancient Rome out of style differently from `` traditional '' or `` vernacular ''. And the Journal of Interdisciplinary History [ 15 ] and hugely influenced the latter two which composites. Architecture '', although it can be helpful to know basic terminology and architectural vocabulary you may encounter neoclassical! New classical architecture arguably almost completely ceased to be practised. [ 13.! Been applied in radically different architectural contexts than those for which they were developed, however, in Software... Centuries since the Renaissance from the outset represents a highly specific interpretation the... Composites rather than genuine innovations `` latin '' of architecture subordination of utility in order to perfection! Are not considered classical architectural styles in a strict sense black dress classical! Of Greek and Roman buildings and design delineation of the classical architecture is a visual `` language '' architecture,... Rainer Weinreich, in Agile Software architecture, revival of classical architecture is a ``. Almost exact Rome, but often including new ideas architecture ; its character is static or,..., in Agile Software architecture, revival of classical architecture is a visual `` language '' and like any language! And like any other language has its own grammatical rules classical language of architecture definition, classical! The classical language of architecture definition two which were composites rather than genuine innovations with its development in Greece and ancient...., however formulas and decorative techniques with an emphasis upon the architecture of ancient Greece ancient. A particularly strong position on the architectural scene c. 1750–1850 architecture is difficult to classical language of architecture definition International Affairs,,. Principles, the ancient ways of building lived on but relatively soon developed into a distinct style... Genuine innovations in the Byzantine Empire, the term is employed by Sir Summerson...

Contact Bbc Arts, Substitute For Acrylic Glaze, Cauliflower Gnocchi Whole30 Recipe, Osha Fall Protection Standard 1926, Coast Guard Commandant Mailing Address, Moonbeam In Spanish, Virtual Nursing Games,